Analysis of the precision of determination of aircraft coordinates using EGNOS+SDCM solution




aircraft, coordinates, standard deviation, precision, EGNOS, SDCM


This paper presents an algorithm for determining the precision parameter for aircraft position coordinates based on a combined GPS/EGNOS and GPS/SDCM solution. The proposed algorithm uses a weighted average model that combines a single GPS/EGNOS and GPS/SDCM position navigation solution to determine the resulting aircraft coordinates. The weighted mean model include the linear coefficients as a function of: the inverse of the number of tracked GPS satellites for which EGNOS and SDCM corrections have been generated, and the inverse of the geometric coefficient of the PDOP (Position Dilution of Precision). The corrections between the single GPS/EGNOS and GPS/SDCM solution to the aircraft's resultant coordinates are then calculated on this basis. Finally, the standard deviation for the aircraft resultant BLh (B-Latitude, L-Longitude, h-ellipsoidal height) coordinates is calculated as a measure of precision. The research experiment used recorded on-board GPS+SBAS data from two GNSS receivers mounted on a Diamond DA 20-C1 aircraft. The test flight was carried out on the Olsztyn-Suwałki-Olsztyn route. The calculations of aircraft position based on GPS/EGNOS and GPS/SDCM solution were performed in the RTKLIB v.2.4.3 program in the RTKPOST module. Next, aircraft resultant coordinates and standard deviations were computed in Scilab v.6.0.0 software package. Based on the tests performed, it was found that for the Trimble Alloy receiver, the standard deviation values for the ellipsoidal coordinates BLh of the aircraft do not exceed 1.77 m. However, for the Septentrio AsterRx2i receiver, the values of standard deviations for the aircraft's ellipsoidal BLh coordinates do not exceed 5.04 m. The use of linear coefficients as the inverse of the number of tracked GPS satellites with SBAS corrections in the GPS/EGNOS+GPS/SDCM positioning model resulted in a reduction in standard deviations of approximately 50-51% relative to the solution with linear coefficients calculated as the inverse of the PDOP parameter. In paper, the standard deviation was also obtained using arithmetic mean model. However the values of standard deviation from weighted mean model are lower than arithmetic mean model.


Azoulai, L., Virag, S., Leinekugel-Le-Cocq, R., Germa, C., Charlot, B., Durel, P. (2009). Experimental Flight Tests with EGNOS on A380 to Support RNAV LPV Operations. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2009), Savannah, GA, USA, 22-25 September 2009; 1203-1215.

Beldjilali, B., Kahlouche, S., Tabti, L. (2020). Assessment of EGNOS performance for civil aviation flight phase in the edge coverage area. Int. J. Aviat. Aeronaut. Aerosp., 7, 1-25, DOI: 10.15394/ijaaa.2020.1479.

Breeuwer, E., Farnworth, R., Humphreys, P., Mcgregor, A., Michel, P., Secretan, H., Leighton, S. J., Ashton, K. J. (2000). Flying EGNOS: The GNSS-1 Testbed, Paper Galileo’s World, January 2000, 10-21. Available at:, [Accessed: 10 May 2023].

Butzmuehlen, C., Stolz, R., Farnworth, R., Breeuwer, E. (2001). PEGASUS-Prototype Development for EGNOS Data Evaluation - First User Experiences with the EGNOS System Test-Bed. In Proceedings of the 2001 National Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, Long Beach, CA, USA, 22-24 January 2001; 628-637.

Fellner, A., Ćwiklak, J., Jafernik, H., Tróminski, P., Zając, J. (2008). GNSS for an aviation analysis based on EUPOS and GNSS/EGNOS collocated stations in PWSZ Chelm. Trans. Nav. Int. J. Mar. Navig. Safe. Sea Transp., 2, 351-356.

Fellner, A., Trómiński, P., Banaszek, K. (2009). EGNOS APV-I and HEDGE projects implementation in Poland. Geophys. Res. Abstr., 11, 4932.

Fellner, A., Banaszek, K., Trómiński, P. (2010). The implementation of the EGNOS system to APV-I precision approach operations. Trans. Nav. Int. J. Mar. Navig. Safe. Sea Transp., 4, 41-46.

Fellner, A., Jafernik, H. (2014). Airborne measurement system during validation of EGNOS/GNSS essential parameters in landing. Rep. Geod. Geoinf., 96, 27-37, DOI: 10.2478/rgg-2014-0004.

Fellner, A., Fellner, R., Piechoczek, E. (2016). Pre-flight validation RNAV GNSS approach procedures for EPKT in “EGNOS APV Mielec project”. Sci. J. Sil. Univ. Technol. Series Transp., 90, 37-46, DOI: 10.20858/sjsutst.2016.90.4.

Fellner, A. (2018). Guidance for the preparation of EGNOS National Market Analysis. Trans. Nav. Int. J. Marine Navig. Safe. Sea Trans., 12, 349-355, DOI: 10.12716/1001.12.02.16.

Fellner, R. (2014). Analysis of the EGNOS/GNSS parameters in selected aspects of Polish transport. Transport Problems, 9, 27-37.

Felski, A., Banaszek, K., Woźniak, T., Zakrzewski, P. (2011). Accuracy of EGNOS service in airport operations. Zeszyty Naukowe Marynarki Wojennej, 52, 1(184): 31-44. (In Polish). [13] Felski, A., Nowak, A. (2011). Accuracy and availability of EGNOS-Results of observations. Artif. Satell., 46, 111-118, DOI: 10.2478/v10018-012-0003-0.

Figurski, M. (2007). Network monitoring system of Polish GNSS reference stations - part III, Geodeta, 147(8), 28-33. (In Polish).

Fonseca, A., Azinheira, J., Soley, S. (2006). Contribution to the operational evaluation of EGNOS as an aeronautical navigation system. In Proceedings of the 25th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS 2006), Hamburg, Germany, 3-8 September 2006; 1-10.

Gołda, P. (2018). Selected decision problems in the implementation of airport operations. Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology. Series Transport, 101, 79-88. DOI: 10.20858/sjsutst.2018.101.8.

Gołda, P., Zawisza, T., Izdebski, M. (2021). Evaluation of efficiency and reliability of airport processes using simulation tools. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc – Maintenance and Reliability, 23 (4): 659–669, DOI: 10.17531/ein.2021.4.8.

Grunwald, G., Bakuła, M., Ciećko, A. (2016). Study of EGNOS accuracy and integrity in eastern Poland. Aeronaut. Journal, 1230, 1275-1290, DOI: 10.1017/aer.2016.66.

Grzegorzewski, M. (2005). Navigating an aircraft by means of a position potential in three dimensional space. Annual of Navigation, 9, 1-111.

Hvezda, M. (2021). Simulation of EGNOS satellite navigation signal usage for aircraft LPV precision instrument approach. Aviation, 25, 171-181, DOI: 10.3846/aviation.2021.14554.

International Civil Aviation Organization. (2006). ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS), Annex 10 Volume I (Radio Navigation Aids). Available at:, [Accessed: 10 May 2023].

Jafernik, H. (2016). Assessment of the Usefulness of EGNOS Differential Corrections in Conducting GPS Static Measurements. Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl., 6, 25-30.

Januszewski, J. (2010). Satellite Navigation Systems in the Transport, Today and in the Future. Archives of Transport, 22, 175-187.

Januszewski, J. (2011). A Look at the Development of GNSS Capabilities Over the Next 10 Years. TransNav Int. J. Mar. Navig. Saf. Sea Transp., 5, 73-78.

Januszewski, J. (2012). Satellite navigation systems in coastal navigation. Sci. J. Marit. Univ. Szczec., 29, 45-52.

Januszewski, J. (2012). New satellite navigation systems and moderenization of current systems, why and for whom? Sci. J. Marit. Univ. Szczec., 32, 58-64.

Kaleta, W. (2014). EGNOS Based APV Procedures Development Possibilities In The South-Eastern Part of Poland. Annual of Navigation, 21, 85-94, DOI: 10.1515/aon2015-0007.

Kaleta, W. (2015). Future EGNOS APV procedures implementation in Poland as a chance for small and medium airports development. Trans. Inst. Aviat., 240, 18-26.

Krasuski, K., Wierzbicki, D., Bakuła, M. (2021). Improvement of UAV Positioning Performance Based on EGNOS+SDCM Solution. Remote Sens., 13, 2597, DOI: 10.3390/rs13132597.

Krasuski, K., Mrozik, M., Wierzbicki, D., Ćwiklak, J., Kozuba, J., Ciećko, A. (2022). Designation of the Quality of EGNOS+SDCM Satellite Positioning in the Approach to Landing Procedure. Applied Sciences, 12, 1335, DOI: 10.3390/app12031335.

Krzykowska-Piotrowska, K., Dudek, E., Wielgosz, P., Milanowska, B., Batalla, J. M. (2021). On the Correlation of Solar Activity and Troposphere on the GNSS/EGNOS Integrity. Fuzzy Logic Approach. Energies, 14, 4534, DOI: 10.3390/en14154534.

Muls, A., Boon, F. (2001). Evaluating EGNOS augmentation on a military helicopter. In Proceedings of the 14th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GPS 2001), Salt Lake City, UT, USA, 11-14 September 2001; 2458-2462.

Oleniacz, G. (2015). GNSS technology and its applications in implementation and control measurements. Wyższa Szkoła Inżynieryjno Ekonomiczna z siedzibą w Rzeszowie, 2015, ISBN: 978-83-60507-24-7. (In Polish).

Oleniacz, G., Świętoń, T. (2018). Accuracy of RTN-GNSS measurement in various measuring conditions, Przegląd Geodezyjny, 90(1), 20-22, DOI: 10.15199/50.2018.1.3. (In Polish).

Oliveira, J., Tiberius, C. (2008). Landing: Added Assistance to Pilots on Small Aircraft Provided by EGNOS. In Proceedings of the Conference 2008 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium, Monterey, CA, USA, 5-8 May 2008; 321-333.






Original articles

How to Cite

Krasuski, K., Lalak, M., Gołda, P., Ciećko, A., Grunwald, G., Mrozik, M., & Kozuba, J. (2023). Analysis of the precision of determination of aircraft coordinates using EGNOS+SDCM solution. Archives of Transport, 67(3), 105-117.


Most read articles by the same author(s)

Similar Articles

1-10 of 54

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.