The Multidimensional Threats of Unmanned Aerial Systems: Exploring Biomechanical, Technical, Operational, and Legal Solutions for Ensuring Safety and Security




UAV, drones, collision, human injuries, head trauma


Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are increasingly utilized in sectors such as surveillance, transportation, and entertainment. The global UAV market, projected to escalate to USD 70.7 billion by 2026, demonstrates a significant growth trajectory. However, alongside their functional utility, UAVs present substantial risk factors, notably in the domain of collisions with humans and other entities. These collision events are categorizable by operational context (military versus civilian) and flight phase (e.g., takeoff, landing). Contributory factors to these occurrences include operator errors, equipment malfunctions, and prevailing environmental conditions. Incidents involving human-UAV collisions are of particular concern. The severity of impact is contingent upon UAV specifications and the conditions of operation. Predominantly accidental, these incidents accentuate escalating safety concerns in the burgeoning UAV sector. This manuscript endeavors to examine the risks inherent in UAV operations, with an emphasis on human-UAV collision scenarios. A review of extant literature is conducted to formulate safety measures and amplify awareness regarding UAV-associated hazards. The manuscript is methodically structured to encompass scenarios of hazard within UAV operations, historical accounts of collisions, and an analysis of their causative factors and subsequent ramifications. Additionally, it scrutinizes the legislative framework governing UAV operations on a global scale, with a specific focus on Europe and Poland. The discourse extends to the examination of physical impacts resultant from UAV-human collisions, exploring diverse scenarios and resultant injuries. The conclusion delineates the necessity for a comprehensive understanding of UAV-associated risks and advocates for strategies to mitigate collision risks. With UAVs becoming increasingly integrated into everyday functionalities, addressing potential threats assumes critical importance. Achieving equilibrium between technological advancement and public safety is paramount. Effective regulation of UAVs necessitates a multifaceted approach, incorporating legal and procedural constraints to curtail accident rates. The manuscript underscores the imperative for established weight and height thresholds for UAVs, implementation of protective measures, and enhancement of public cognizance. Further investigative efforts are imperative to elucidate the long-term repercussions of UAV-induced injuries and the risks posed by emerging UAV models, underscoring the importance of responsible UAV utilization and the ongoing necessity for research in this domain.


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Original articles

How to Cite

Perz, R. (2024). The Multidimensional Threats of Unmanned Aerial Systems: Exploring Biomechanical, Technical, Operational, and Legal Solutions for Ensuring Safety and Security. Archives of Transport, 69(1), 91-111.


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