Verification of the AIS service availability model based on dynamic data streams recorded from three receiving stations in the Polish coastal area




automatic identification system, reliability theory, fast Fourier transform, spectral analysis, digital signal processing


The reliability aspects of the operation of radio navigation systems constitute a crucial element for the safety of maritime navigation.. Technological progress in ship traffic monitoring is achieved through the design of ship systems and shore infrastructure equipped with Automatic Identification System (AIS) devices. One of the issues with AIS operation is the limited availability of the service in the form of data streams with an extended data age recorded on the receiving side. Another problem is the emission and reception by ships of incomplete positional reports without navigational parameters. Such situations render the system operationally unfit in terms of processed information. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the operational characteristics of radio navigation systems and develop tools to monitor the AIS service status on the receiving side. This article presents the development of a model for the availability of an AIS for vessels based on the determined mean time of the occurrence of incomplete navigation parameter values in AIS messages and the results of research in the domain of time and frequency using a mathematical method of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The study results refer to six basic navigation parameters and show a varying service availability factor for the navigation parameters under study, i.e. the latitude (LAT), longitude (LON), speed over ground (SOG), course over ground (COG), heading (HDT), and the rate of turn (ROT). The data recorded by three receiving AIS stations on the Polish coast, i.e. PLKOL, PLSZZ, and PLSWI, were used as a key source of practical knowledge on the limitations of the AIS service availability. The experiment observed interruptions in the regular transmission of data from navigation equipment in the AIS service operational zone. As a result, the functional relationship was described based on the spectral analysis of the frequency of occurrence of times between the service repair (Time To Repair, TTR), and the model was proposed to be applied to the study of other variables. The presented model is a tool that allows for improving the monitoring of vessel traffic in terms of reliability, which directly affects the improvement of maritime traffic safety.


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Data Availability Statement

The manuscript provides a detailed presentation of the authors' model of AIS service availability, which employs a discrete-time and state Markov chain process. Model validation was conducted based on previously recorded data. Additionally, the age of dynamic data was presented in the frequency domain using Fourier transformation, which is a novel approach not previously applied. The analysis of dynamic data aging in the frequency domain indicates the frequency of transmission delays on the receiver's side. Such a service availability model is of particular significance, as it enables us to monitor the state of the AIS system service even in real-time in the future. The operational characteristics of radionavigation systems, such as availability, reliability, and service accuracy, are of utmost importance in situations where we need reliable information for navigational safety purposes. 



Original articles

How to Cite

Jaskolski, K., & Czapliński, W. (2024). Verification of the AIS service availability model based on dynamic data streams recorded from three receiving stations in the Polish coastal area. Archives of Transport, 70(2), 159-180.


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