Prospects for the development of electric vehicle charging infrastructure in poland in the light of the regulations in force


  • Ewelina Sendek-Matysiak Kielce University of Technology, Department of Mechatronics and Machine Construction, Kielce Author
  • Dariusz Pyza Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Transport, Warsaw Author



electric vehicle, electromobility, infrastructure, EV charging station


The Polish electric mobility market, presently at a relatively early development stage, cannot compete with traditional means of transport in relation to the number of locations enabling drivers to “refuel” their vehicles. Simultaneously, ex-tension of the network of publicly available EV charging stations constitutes a vital prerequisite for electric vehicle industry development. The feeling of range anxiety connected with limited access to suitable EV charging outlets, in particular during longer trips, discourages potential buyers from purchasing electric vehicles, and, as a result, limited demand hinders development of this industry. In January 2018, the Polish Parliament (the Sejm) passed the Act on electromobility and alternative fuels which establishes a certain system and provides a number of objectives vital for electric vehicle market development. Being aware of the fact that, at least for the first few years, infrastructure development is a key factor, the legislator, in Art. 60, section 1 of the Act, establishes a minimum number of EV charging outlets to be installed in Polish communes, by 31 December 2020. However, no detailed guidelines as to their location were given. It only indicates a minimum number of them, which should be established in communes with a given demographic and transport characteristics of the commune i.e. the number of inhabitants and motor vehicles and the number of cars per 1000 inhabitants of the commune. The purpose of this article is to indicate in which, specifically, municipalities, according to the act, electric vehicles charging outlets are to be located. Based on the analysis performed it was determined that publicly available EV charging outlets must be installed only in 32 of 2477 communes in Poland and these are municipalities. Identification of such communes made it possible to determine the distances between them, which made it possible to verify whether the network of EV charging infrastructure planned on the basis of the guidelines in the Act will enable efficient route travel in the future without experiencing any range anxiety. In addition, the existing market conditions were presented and discussed, with an indication of whether they are conducive to meeting the minimum set in the Act regarding the number of charging points. The conducted analysis is an introduction to further research on determining the optimal distribution of charging outlet in Poland.


ELECTROMOBILITY, 2018. Act of 11 January 2018 on electromobility and alternative fuels. Journal of Laws 2018, item 317, 22.02.18. Available: isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20180000317/T/ D20180317L.pdf.

BABIĆ, D., BAJOR, I., BABIĆ, M.I., 2010. Choice factors of distribution channels. Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics, 1, 15-13.

CARBON, C.C., GEBAUER, F., 2017. The Safe-Range-Inventory (SRI): An assistance tool for optimizing the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 47, 101–113.

CROV. Central Register of Vehicles. Available:

CSO. Central Statistical Office. Available:

CORREA, D.F., BEYER, H.L., FARGIONEC, J.E., HILL, J.D., POSSINGHAM, H.P., THOMAS-HALL, S.R., SCHENKA, P.M., 2019. Towards the implementation of sustainable biofuel production systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 107, 250-263.

EMP. ElectroMobility Poland. Available:

EAFO. European Alternative Fuels Observatory. Available:

EAMA. European Automobile Manufacturers' Association. Available:

EUD. 2014/94/EU, 2014. European Union. Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure (Official Journal L 307 of 28.10.2014). Available: /?uri=CELEX:32014L0094.

COM, 2016. European Union. European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility, COM(2016) 501, 2016. Available: PL.html.

EUWP, 2011. European Union. White Paper Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system. 2011. Available: files/themes/strategies/doc/2011_white_paper/white-paper-illustrated-brochure_en.pdf.

ESE, 2017. Eurostat. Statistics Explained. Greenhouse gas emissions by IPCC source sector, EU-28, 2017.png. Available:

EUROSTAT. Eurostat: Database. Available:

FRANKE, T., KREMS, J.F., 2013. Interacting with limited mobility resources: Psychological range levels in electric vehicle use. Transp Res Part Policy Pract., 48, 109-122.

GDFNR. General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways. Available:

GM. Google Maps. Available:

GRAHAM-ROWE, E., GARDNER, B., ABRAHAM, C., SKIPPON, S., DITTMAR, H., HUTCHINS, R., et al., 2012. Mainstream consumers driving plug in battery-electric and plug in hybrid electric cars: A qualitative analysis of responses and evaluations. Transp Res Part Policy Pract., 46(1), 140-53.

HIDRUE, M.K., PARSONS, G.R., KEMPTON, W., GARDNER. M.P., 2011. Willingness to pay for electric vehicles and their attributes. Resour Energy Econ., 33(3), 686–705.

HIWAKI, K., 2019. Unintended human-personal self-destruction: can we save ourselves? Kybernetes. 48 (2), 298-317.

HOERSTEBROCK, T., HAHN, A., SAUER, J., 2014. Tool based assessment of electromobility in urban logistics. Studies in Computational Intelligence, 537, 379-395.

INNOGY. Innogy. Available:

JAKOBSSON, N., GNANN, T., PLÖTZ, P., SPREI, F., KARLSSON, S., 2016. Are multicar households better suited for battery electric vehicles? - Driving patterns and economics in Sweden and Germany. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 65, 1-15.

JODKOWSKA, L., 2001. Degree of sustainable development and sustainable society objective fulfilment on selected examples. Sustainable development trends and challenges, Zapol. Szczecin.

KTNS. Kantar TNS. Available:

KHVATOVA, M.A., MAGOMEDOV, R.M., MAGOMEDRASULOV. M.N., LISITZINA. T.B., MARCHENKO. A.A., EVDOKIMOVA. E.V., SARANCHUK. Y.M., SHAGIEVA. R.V., 2019. Overcoming Dangers of Modern Techno-Sphere as Priority Strategy for Biosphere and Man Sustainable Development. Ekoloji, 28, 4949-4954.

KOCHNEVA, L.V., KURAKIN, A.V., BELOV, V.E., KASHINA, S.G., BLINOVA, L.N., BASHKIRCEVA, N.Y., FARRAHOV, V.N., KHUSAINOVA, L.R., 2019. New environmental reality in man-made risks context. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13, 1697-1703.

KPMG. Automotive industry against the current. Assessment of electromobility development support forms in Poland, within the framework of the Low-Emission Transport Fund. Available: home.html.

KRAWIEC, S., KRAWIEC, K., 2017. Electromobility development in Poland. Conditions, objectives and barriers. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach, 332, 17-24.

LEDWITH, M., 2020. Community Development: A Critical Approach. Policy Press.

MILOJEVIĆ, S., SKRUCANY, T.H., STANOJEVIĆ, D., PANTIĆ, M., STOJANOVIĆ, B., 2018. Alternative drive systems and environmentally friendly public passengers transport. Applied Engineering Letters, 3, 105-113.

NIKOŁAJEWKA, A., ADEY, P., CRESS-WELL, T., LEE, J.Y., NÓVOA, A., TEMENOS, C., 2019. Commoning mobility: To-wards a new politics of mobility transitions. Trans Inst Br Geogr, 44, 346-360.

PEARRE, N.S, KEMPTON, W., GUENSLER, R.L, ELANGO, V.V., 2011. Electric vehicles: How much range is required for a day’s driving? Transport Research Part C Emerg. Technol., 19(6), 1171–84.

PISONIA, E., CHRISTIDIS, P., THUNIS, P., TROMBETTI, M., 2019. Evaluating the impact of “Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans” on urban background air quality. Journal of Environmental Management, 231, 249-255.

PSEV. PlugShare - EV Charging Station Map. Available:

PAFA. Polish Alternative Fuels Association. Available:

PAIA. Polish Automotive Industry Association. Available:

POOOIAT. Polish Organisation of Oil Industry and Trade. Available:

REZVANI, Z, JANSSON, J, BODIN, J., 2015. Advances in consumer electric vehicle adoption research: A review and research agenda. Transport Research Part Transp. Environ., 34, 122-136.

SCHUITEMA, G, ANABLE, J, SKIPPON, S, KINNEAR, N., 2013. The role of instrumental, hedonic and symbolic attributes in the intention to adopt electric vehicles. Transport Research Part Policy Pract., 48, 39-49.

SENDEK-MATYSIAK, E., 2020. Most import ant barriers for electromobility development in Poland. Przegląd Komunikacyjny, 3(75), 8-15.

SENDEK-MATYSIAK, E., SZUMSKA, E., 2018. Charging infrastructure as one of electromobility development elements in Poland. Prace Naukowe Politechniki Warszawskiej, 121, 329-340.

SENDEK-MATYSIAK. E., 2018. Future of the automotive market in terms of electric cars. Prace Naukowe Politechniki Warszawskiej, 123, 163-174.

SOVACOOL, B.K, HIRSH, R.F., 2009. Beyond batteries: An examination of the benefits and barriers to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition. Energy Policy, 37(3), 1095-1103.

SSW, 2019. SSW Pragmatic Solution, Low-emission mobility, 2019. Available: pl-raport-niskoemisyjna-mobilnosc.pdf.

STANDING, C., STANDING, S., BIERMANN, S., 2019. The implications of the sharing economy for transport. Journal Transport Reviews, 39, 2.

SZTUMSKI, W., 2019. For Further Social Development, Peaceful, Safe and Useful for People. Problems of Sustainable Development, 14(2), 25-32.

TARGEO. Available:

WIERZBOWSKI. P., 2019. Electric-fuelled road transport as element of logistic support system - electromobility development perspectives in Poland. Logistyka, 9, 38-59.

ZANIEWSKA-ZIELIŃSKA, D., 2018. Electromobility development problems in Poland. Europa Regionum, 2(35), 63-7.

ZHAO, X., KE, Y., ZUO, J., XIONG, W., WU, P., 2020. Evaluation of sustainable transport research in 2000-2019. Journal of Cleaner Production, 256.






Original articles

How to Cite

Sendek-Matysiak, E., & Pyza, D. (2021). Prospects for the development of electric vehicle charging infrastructure in poland in the light of the regulations in force. Archives of Transport, 57(1), 43-58.


Similar Articles

1-10 of 245

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.