Analysis of the operation states of internal combustion engine in the Real Driving Emissions test




combustion engine, real driving emissions, engine operation states


Internal combustion engines represent the largest share of motor vehicle propulsion types. Despite the introduction of alternative drives (hybrid and electric), combustion engines will continue to be the main factor in the development of transport. Therefore, work related to their technological development and reduction of their harmful effects on human health and the environment is required. The development of internal combustion engines can be seen in two directions: technological changes resulting in increased efficiency of such engines and the second direction connected with limitation of exhaust gas emission. The present work is included in the second direction of research interests and concerns the analysis of various operating conditions of internal combustion engines. The operating states, both static and dynamic, determine the operational properties of internal combustion engines, such as fuel and energy consumption as well as pollutant emissions. Sofar, such operating conditions have only been mapped on a chassis dynamometer in various homologation tests. The course of the type approval test was known and the conditions of measurement were also known, which made it impossible to introduce a random factor into such tests. Currently, these properties are determined in tests performed in real vehicle operating conditions – RDE (Real Driving Emissions). Such tests are representing real operating conditions of motor vehicles. Limitations for performing tests in real traffic conditions are, apart from formal requirements concerning the duration and distance of individual parts, the dynamic conditions of vehicles determined by the speed and acceleration of the vehicle. The study analyzed the properties of vehicle speed processes and engine operating states in the RDE test, taking into account its individual phases – driving in urban, rural and motorway conditions. Engine operation states are the processes of the engine rotational speed and its relative torque. It was found that the dynamic properties of the vehicle speed process are much more significant than the engine operating states. It was also found that the road emission of pollutants in the RDE test, which is the property of vehicles measured in the test, the motorway phase properties have greatest impact.


André, M. (2004). The ARTEMIS European driving cycles for measuring car pollutant emissions. Sci Total Environ. 1(334–335), 73– 84, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.04.070.

André, M., Joumard, R., Vidon, R., Tassel, P., Perrte, P. (2006). Real-world European driving cycles, for measuring pollutant emissions from high- and low-powered cars. Atmospheric Environment, 40(31), 5944–5953, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.12.057.

André, M., Mario, R. (2009). Analysis and modelling of the pollutant emissions from European cars regarding the driving characteristics and test cycles. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 986-995, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.03.013.

André, M., Sartelet, K., Moukhtar, S., Andre, J.M., Redaelli M. (2020). Diesel, petrol or electric vehicles: What choices to improve urban air quality in the Ile-de-France region? A simulation platform and case study. Atmospheric Environment, 241, 117752, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117752.

Andrych-Zalewska, M., Chłopek, Z., Merkisz, J., Pielecha, J. (2019). Exhaust emission from a vehicle engine operating in dynamic states and conditions corresponding to real driving. Combustion Engines, 178(3): 99–105, DOI:10.19206/CE-2019-317.

Andrych-Zalewska, M., Chłopek, Z., Merkisz, J., Pielecha, J. (2020). Assessment of the internal catalyst efficiency in a diesel engine of a vehicle under the conditions simulating real driving. Energies, 13(24), 6569, DOI: 10.3390/en13246569.

Andrych-Zalewska, M., Chłopek, Z., Merkisz, J., Pielecha, J. (2021). Investigations of exhaust emissions from a combustion engine under simulated actual operating conditions in real driving emissions test. Energies, 14(4), 935, DOI: 10.3390/en14040935.

Barlows, T.J., Latham, S., McCrae, I.S., Boulter P.G. (2009). A reference book of driving cycles for use in the measurement of road vehicle emissions. Report PPR354. Department for Transport, Cleaner Fuels & Vehicles.

Barrios, C.C., Dominguez-Saez, A., Rubio, J.R., Pujadas, M. (2012). Factors influencing the number distribution and size of the particles emitted from a modern diesel vehicle in real urban traffic. Atmospheric Environment, 56, 16–25, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.078.

Bebkiewicz, K., Chłopek, Z., Sar, H., Szczepański, K., Zimakowska-Laskowska, M. (2021). Assessment of impact of vehicle traffic conditions: urban, rural and highway, on the results of pollutant emissions inventory. Archives of Transport, 60(4), 57–69, DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0015.5477.

Bendat, J.S., Piersol, A.G. (2011). Random data: Analysis and measurement procedures. John Wiley & Sons.

BUWAL (Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft), INFRAS AG (Infrastruktur-, Umwelt- und Wirtschaftsberatung). Luftschadst of femissionen des Strassenverkehrs 1950–2010, BUWAL-Bericht 1995; 255.

Chłopek, Z. et al. (2017). Modelling of motor vehicle operation for the evaluation of pollutant emission and fuel consumption. Combustion Engines, 171(4), 156–163.

Chłopek, Z., Biedrzycki, J., Lasocki, J., Wójcik, P. (2015). Assessment of the impact of dynamic states of an internal combustion engine on its operational properties. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc – Maintenance and Reliability, 17(1), 35–41.

Chłopek, Z. (2010). Some remarks on engine testing in dynamic states. Combustion Engines, 4(143), 60–72.

Chłopek, Z. (2016). Synthesis of driving cycles in accordance with the criterion of similarity of frequency characteristics. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc – Maintenance and Reliability, 18, 572–577, DOI: 10.17531/ein.2016.4.12.

Galgamuwa, U., Perera, L., Bandara, S. (2015). Developing a general methodology for driving cycle construction: comparison of various established driving cycles in the world to propose a general approach. Transportation Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2015.54018.

Gamalath, I.M., Galgamuwa, U.N., Fernando, C.M., Perera, L., Bandara, J.M.S.J. (2012). Methodology to develop a driving cycle for a given mode and traffic corridor; case study for Galle Road, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the Civil Engineering Research for Industry Symposium, Moratuwa 45-50,

Gis, W., Gis, M., Pielecha, J., Skobiej, K. (2021). Alternative exhaust emission factors from vehicles in on-road driving tests. Energies, 14(12), 3487-1-3487-24, DOI: 10.3390/en14123487.

Guzzella, L., Onder, Ch.H. (2004). Introduction to modeling and control of internal combustion engine systems. Springer.

Hamming, R.W. (1962). Numerical methods for scientists and engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill.; Emission Test Cycles (2021).

Hung, W.T., Tong, H.Y., Lee, C.P., Ha, K. and Pao, L.Y. (2007). Development of a practical driving cycle construction methodology: a case study in Hong Kong. Transportation Research Part D, 12, 115–128, DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2007.01.002.

INFRAS AG. (2014). Handbook emission factors for road transport 3.2. Quick reference. Version 3.2. Bern.

Joumard, R., Philippe, F., Vidon, R. (1999). Reliability of the current models of instantane ous pollutant emissions. The Science of the Total Environment, 235, 133–142, DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00202-8.

Merkisz, J., Pielecha, J. (2018). Comparison of real driving emissions tests. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 421, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/421/4/042055.

PEMS Testing (2020). Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (

Pielecha, J., Gis, M. (2020). The use of the mild hybrid system in vehicles with regard to ex haust emissions and their environmental impact. Archives of Transport, 55(3), 41–50, DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0014.4229.

Pielecha, J., Gis, M., Skobiej, K., Kurtyka K. (2021). Measurements of particulate emissions from Euro 5/6 passenger cars in different drive settings. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 642, 012018-1-012018-9, DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/642/1/012018.

Pielecha, J., Skobiej, K. (2020a). Evaluation of ecological extremes of vehicles in road emission tests. Archives of Transport, 56(4), 33–46, DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0014.5516.

Pielecha, J., Skobiej, K., Kurtyka K. (2020b). Exhaust emissions and energy consumption analysis of conventional, hybrid, and electric vehicles in real driving cycles. Energies, 13(23), 6423-1-6423-21, DOI: 10.3390/en13236423.

Savitzky, A., Golay, M.J.E. (1964). Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures. Analytical Chemistry, 36(8), 1627–1639, DOI: 10.1021/ac60214a047.

Semtech-DS On Board Vehicle Emissions Analyzer (2010). User Manual. Document: 9510-086, Revision: 2.01.

Skobiej, K., Pielecha, J. (2021). Plug-in hybrid ecological category in real driving emission. Energies, 14(8), 2340-1-2340-25, DOI: 10.3390/en14082340.

TSI 3090 EEPS™ (Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer™), User Manual (2008).

UITP SORT & E-SORT brochures (2017). ITP SORT & E-SORT brochures UITP.

Worldwide emission standards (2021/2022). Passenger cars and light duty vehicles. Delphi. Innovation for the real world. [38] Worldwide Emissions Standards (2020/2021). Heavy duty and off-highway vehicles. Delphi. Innovation for the real world.

Zhang, X., Zhao, D.-J., Shen, J.-M. (2012). A synthesis of methodologies and practices for developing driving cycles. Energy Procedia, 16, 1863-1873.






Original articles

How to Cite

Andrych-Zalewska, M., Chłopek, Z., Merkisz, J., & Pielecha, J. (2022). Analysis of the operation states of internal combustion engine in the Real Driving Emissions test. Archives of Transport, 61(1), 71-88.


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >> 

Similar Articles

1-10 of 190

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.